GI Treatement

Cancer of GI Treat

Ten-year follow-up results indicate that the ablation by radio frequency of not resectable liver metastases in colorectal cancer patients can prolong overall survival in these patients.

The study included 119 patients in 22 centers in Europe, randomized to receive either chemotherapy alone, or radiofrequency ablation with or without resection in addition to chemotherapy. Patients were qualified only when all liver lesions is fully treated by radiofrequency ablation alone or combined treatment that consisted of resection of resectable lesions and radiofrequency ablation of the remaining unresectable lesions. After 10 years of follow-up, results showed that patients with combined treatment had better overall survival than those with only chemotherapy:

Three, five and eight-year overall survival rates were, 56.9%, 43.1%, 35.9% respectively in the combined modality arm, and 55.2%, 30.3%, 8.9% respectively in the systemic treatment arm.

In addition, median progression-free survival was also improved in the combined arm at 16.8 months, compared to 9.9 months in the systemic arm. Now no science-based evidence to demonstrate the long-term benefit of this approach, lead investigator for the study. This provides that patients are not eligible for surgery can benefit from a vigorous treatment of systemic and local intervention.

The disputatious local tumour ablation with chemotherapy as level of care for unresectable colorectal liver metastases can significantly change the outcome for these patients, develope overall survival.

Gastrointestinal cancer refers to malignant conditions of the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract) and accessory organs of digestion, including the esophagus, stomach, biliary system, pancreas, small intestine, large intestine, rectum and anus. The symptoms relate to the organ affected and can include obstruction (leading to difficulty swallowing or defecating), abnormal bleeding or other associated problems. The diagnosis often requires endoscopy, followed by biopsy of suspicious tissue. The treatment depends on the location of the tumor, as well as the type of cancer cell and whether it has invaded other tissues or spread elsewhere. These factors also determine the prognosis.

Diarrhea, with its frequent and watery bowel movements, often is caused by gastrointestinal infections (although other illnesses and dietary changes also can be culprits). Germs such as parasites, viruses, or bacteria all can cause gastrointestinal (GI) infections.

What is included in the gastrointestinal tract?
The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) consists of a hollow muscular tube starting from the oral cavity, where food enters the mouth, continuing through the pharynx, oesophagus, stomach and intestines to the rectum and anus, where food is expelled.

What is a GI tract infection?
Gastrointestinal infections are viral, bacterial or parasitic infections that cause gastroenteritis, an inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract involving both the stomach and the small intestine. Symptoms include diarrhea, vomiting, and abdominal pain.

What causes an infection in the intestines?
Bacterial gastroenteritis happens when bacteria causes an infection in your gut. This causes inflammation in your stomach and intestines. You may also experience symptoms like vomiting, severe abdominal cramps, and diarrhea. While viruses cause many gastrointestinal infections, bacterial infections are also common.

What are the signs and symptoms of gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding?

Acute gastrointestinal bleeding first will appear as vomiting of blood, bloody bowel movements, or black, tarry stools. Vomited blood from bleeding in the stomach may look like “coffee grounds.” Symptoms associated with blood loss can include

  • Fatigue
  • Weakness
  • Shortness of breath
  • Abdominal pain
  • Pale appearance
  • Vomiting of blood usually originates from an upper GI source.
  • Bright red or maroon stool can be from either a lower GI source or from brisk bleeding from an upper GI source.
  • Long-term GI bleeding may go unnoticed or may cause fatigue, anemia, black stools, or a positive test for microscopic blood.

What causes gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding?

The causes of gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding are classified into upper or lower, depending on their location in the GI tract. Because GI bleeding is a symptom of many conditions, these conditions are all risk factors for getting a GI bleed.

What are causes and risk factors for upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding?

  1. Peptic ulcer disease: Peptic ulcers are localized erosions of the mucosal lining of the digestive tract. Ulcers usually occur in the stomach or duodenum. Breakdown of the mucosal lining results in damage to blood vessels, causing abdominal bleeding.
  2. Gastritis: General inflammation of the stomach lining, which can result in bleeding in the stomach. Gastritis also results from an inability of the gastric lining to protect itself from the acid it produces. Causes of gastritis include
    NSAIDs or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, for example, ibuprofen (Aleve, Advil, Excedrin, Children’s Advil, Children’s Motrin, Midol, Pamprin, and aspirin)
    * steroids
    * burns and
  3. Esophageal varices: Swelling of the veins of the esophagus or stomach usually resulting from liver disease. Varices most commonly occur in alcoholic liver cirrhosis. When varices bleed, the bleeding can be massive, catastrophic and occur without warning.
  4. Mallory-Weiss tear: A tear in the esophageal or stomach lining, often as a result of severe vomiting or retching. Mucosal tears also can occur after seizures, forceful coughing or laughing, lifting, straining, or childbirth. Physicians often find tears in people who have recently binged on alcohol.

Cancer: One of the earliest signs of esophageal or stomach cancers may be blood in the vomit or stool.
Inflammation: When the mucous membranes break down, they are unable to counteract the harsh effects of stomach acid. NSAIDs, aspirin, alcohol, and cigarette smoking promote gastric ulcer formation. Helicobacter pylori is a type of bacteria that also promotes formation of ulcers.



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